Equipment Box

One of the tricky parts of creating the dbiua network was getting the relay points setup, with a small POE switch, and battery backup.

We initially used Tycon Power Systems UPS-DC1224-9 system.  This was a great little box that had a 9AH battery and a charge controller, and just enough room to get a Ubiquity Toughswitch5 in there.

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But the 4 allenhead screws were not the best and after being out in the weather for a while, they would break.  So, we switched things out and used all the same parts (9AH battery, TP-SCPOE-1214 charge controller, and toughswitch), but in a Hana Wireless NEMA 12x10x5 fiberglass box.  But, the biggest problem was mounting all the stuff in the Hana box efficiently.

What I ended up doing was designing a bracket to hold the battery up at the top, and then 2 brackets to hold the toughswitch above the charge controller.  I 3D printed both of these things (the blue things in the picture below).

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I have uploaded the design of both of these brackets to Shapeways, so if you want them for your own project and do not have a 3d printer, you can just order them from Shapeways.

https://www.shapeways.com/shops/dbiua

You will need 2 toughswitch9 and 1 batterybox12.  The prices for both of these are not marked up at all.

One last part that you need is a POE splitter (Tycon Power Systems POE-SPLT-S
Passive Splitter 5.5/2.1mm DC Shielded): https://www.streakwave.com/itemdesc.asp?ic=POE-SPLT-S&eq=&Tp=&o1=0

This allows you to pull the power off the charge controller POE out port, and power the toughswitch.  In the picture above you can see one end of this splitter plugged into the first port of the switch.  The rest of the splitter is under the switch.

Our latest version of this equipment box includes a RaspberryPI (designed by Brett Marl), that monitors the power of the battery, as well as doing internal speed tests on our network.

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Radios we use

In a previous post I mentioned the wifi routers we install in members homes.  These are the last part of the network.  So what about everything else?

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We use a variety of radios depending on the situation.  For PTP links we generally use PowerbridgeM5 on both ends, though sometimes we have a PowerbridgeM5 on the upstream side, and a NanoStationM5 on the downstream side.

For one PTP link from the water tank, we have a RocketM5 with 30dBi 2′ dish, and a NanoStationM5 on the other end.  The NanoStationM5 is up at the top of a tree, and sways around a bit.

For our PTMP (Point to Multipoint) links, we always have a RocketM5 with either a 16 or 19 dBi sector, or sometimes a 13dBi omni antenna.  On the downstream side we use either NanoStationM5, or NanoLocoM5, or NanoBeamM5-16, or sometimes for a long link, a NanoBridgeM5-22.  The NanoBeamM5-16 are really great little radios as they have a nice integrated mounting bracket.

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Some of our links use 900mhz, and for these we will use a RocketM900, with a 13dBi sector (what I call the water heater, because the thing is huge).  Then on the downstream side we have NanoLocoM900.  Sometimes we will use a NanoLocoM900 on both sides of the link if the link is not going very far, or there is just one client radio downstream.

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In one location we are using 3.65 Ghz (which requires an FCC license).  Here we have a RocketM365 with a 12dBi Omni, and then NanoStationM365 for downstream radios.

And in another location we are using 2.4Ghz, and a RocketM2 with a 16dBi sector and NanoStationM2 downstream.

These are all part of Ubiquity’s AirMax line.  We are not using an AC radios yet, but we might switch to some of these on our backhaul links in the future.

My Favorite Ubiquity Wifi Router

Our standard member install usually (always), has one radio outside the house.  This is some form of their airmax line.  We sometimes also provide a 2.4ghz wifi router for the member inside the house.  This is not always required if they already have a wifi router.

In order to make things easy, we decided to standardize on a Ubiquity product here as well.

In the very beginning, we used their basic AirRouter.

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We then started using the AirRouter-HP, which has a better range, and is powered by POE.  it is a little more expensive.

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Then I ran across their AirGateway, which is this tiny little thing that plugs directly into the POE brick.  They also had an AirGateway-LR, which was similar to the AirRouter-HP.

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After doing some installs with these, I decided I liked the AirRouters better, specifically the AirRouter-HP.  Why?  Not totally sure, but they seem more tried and true, and you have the ability to plug more than one thing into them if needed.

An Un throttled experiment

Probably all Internet services give people a choice of either speed or data caps.

The DBIUA decided to see what would happen without imposing either of these on its members.

We got the fastest upstream connection that we could, and then we built our wireless network out and tried to provide the fastest speeds possible in an affordable manner.

In order to test the speeds on our internal network, we installed a speed test mini webpage on a server at the water tank.  This allows people to test speeds to the tank.

If you are one or two hops from the tank, you can probably get upload and download speeds in the 40+mpbs range.  If you are several hops away, then that tends to drop to the 20’s.  And some places it’s around 10.  But, that’s a far cry from the 1.5mbps that you sometimes got with DSL.

So, what does our overall bandwidth usage look like going out of the tank to the internet?

ciscotraffic

This is a snapshot of 2 days.  Notice the spike in the evenings.  So even though people may be able to download faster, the reality is they don’t consume that much, and it’s only generally in the evening.  Here is another graph that shows this same traffic over a weeks time.

ciscoweek

So, what about individual usage?  Not all ISP’s graph this data, but we decided to do this so we could manage the network and identify any issues.  I think those ISP’s that might do this, would probably not share this information, because it shows we actually use WAY less than we think we do.

Here is the usage graph for the connection from my house for that same 2 day period:

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Notice the scale on the left.  3.0.  Not 30.0 like the above graph.  And the usage is way less.  The larger blob at the far right is watching some video.  The little spikes are various downloads.  General web browsing, or youtube at lower rez is the other green blips.

Here is another person, with a different usage pattern:

movieusage

Notice the scale change again.  This is someone streaming something high def (the large green blobs).  But, there are still large swaths of time when nothing is happening.

Here are a few more

webusage

moremovie

All of these individual usage patterns flow together to create the one at the top.  We have not had to throttle anyone, or impose data caps.  We allow everyone to use what is available at any given time on the network.

There have been times when a lot of people were streaming something around the same time, and guess what happened?  Things slowed down a little bit for everyone.  Sometimes there may have been a little buffering, but in general it has not been a problem.

The million dollar question is how much speed do you really need?

In my opinion, if you have a reliable 2-3mbps available to you, that is plenty.  If you can burst to faster speeds as needed, that is an extra bonus.  6-8mbps means you can stream very high def video.  But using 50 or 100mbps for long periods of time is actually not very common.

And, personally I have had times when slow speeds are not on our end, but instead on the other end of the connection, at the data center side, where a webserver might be throttled, or on a slow connection.

So, hopefully this gives you all some good real world information about our little socialist network experiment 🙂

Growing and costs going down!

When we launched the DBIUA, in order to cover our upstream bandwidth costs, and to pay down our 3 year loan for our capital equipment, we needed 23 people to commit to paying $75/month.  We got those “early adopters” as Chris Brems likes to say, and then over the past year+ we have slowly added more and more members.

Today, we have 61 connections, with 10 on the waiting list to be installed.

We have almost 3 times the number of members needed to pay for running the system.  What are we doing with all that money?

We had to spend some money on backbone infrastructure to service more people.  And we have installed a backup link at the water tank, so our upstream bandwidth costs have increased a bit.

We purchased backup equipment to have on the shelf in case something bad happens (like a tree falls down).

We are paying off our 3 year loan a year early.

And….we are lowering our monthly rates.  Just like we said we would.

After talking through some ideas, we (the board) came up with the following, which we thought was fair to those who have been with us from the start.

Your first 18 months on the system costs $75/month.  Your next 6 months are $65/month, then 6 months at $55, then after that $45/month.

Our first round of members will start seeing their bills go down in the next month or so.

Even with this tiered pricing model, our projections still say we will end up with a lot of cash in the bank, so we are looking at other capital credit payments to members, along with continued investment in our network.

Orcas Internet Options

Ever since moving back to Orcas several years ago I have been looking for ways to connect to the internet.

The good news is today, in 2016, there are more ways than ever.  But making sense of them all is difficult if you are not a tech geekhead (like me).

This post tries to shed light on the different options available to those on Orcas.  I will try my hardest to make this easy to understand.

As with many other decisions in life, we weight our choices based on things like features and price, and we need to be able to see through all the marketing doubletalk.  Internet connections are no different.

CenturyLink DSL

Even though you can get DSL through others (Rockisland/Orcas Online), it’s CenturyLink who is providing internet over the copper wire that you use for your phone.

Depending on where you live and how far you are from the local “remote”, this might be an option for you.  It is probably what most of you already use for internet.

The remote is either the main office in Eastsound, or a box that is on the side of the road somewhere.  Usually it’s within a mile or two (or three+!) from you.

If you are close enough to the remote, and it is connected to the rest of the world by a fiber optic cable, then you can probably get speeds of 6mbps or more download, and about 1/10 of that upload (see this page for an explanation of upload/download speeds).  Otherwise you will only get about 1.5mbps download and about 1/10 of that upload.

In some locations even if you are close enough, CenturyLink will still not provide you access because too many people are already connected to that remote.  Also if there are too many people connected to a remote, speeds for everyone suffer.  This is called “oversubscribing”.

The good part of DSL is it’s cheap, and by bundling with your phone service, you probably only pay $10/month.  The down side is sometimes it is not very reliable, and dealing with a huge company like CenturyLink when it doesn’t work can cause you to jump off a cliff!

Satellite

Many people on Orcas have a satellite dish on their house so they can watch TV.  So, it seems like you should be able to get internet this was as well.

You can, but like with DSL there are some good and bad issues.  The good is that the speeds are better than DSL.  You still have slower upload than download though.

The bad is the cost is more than DSL.  Also, because your signal goes from your house, out into space, and then back down to earth again, this thing called “latency” comes into play, and even though the speed is good, it takes a little bit before the speed starts happening.  For example, you might click on a link on a webpage, and there will be this 2 or 3 (or more) second lag before the page comes back.  But once it comes back it all downloads quickly.

One of the bigger downsides are usually “data caps”.  This means if you consume too much of the internet, you either get cut off, or the speed goes down to really slow, or you get a huge bill at the end of the month.

Things that consume a lot of your internet connections are watching video, backing up your computer, uploading images to places like Facebook.

You might think that a data cap of 5GB (gigabytes) is a lot.  But watching just one Netflix movie will probably blow through that.

Verizon/T-Mobile/AT&T

You might already have access to the internet over your mobile phone, and depending on where you are, you might have “LTE” coverage, and get speeds that are better than what DSL or Satellite can provide.

Also, some of these companies can provide you “Fixed Wireless LTE”, which is a little box that lives at your house that connects to the internet the same way your phone does.

Both of these options have the dreaded “data cap” like with Satellite, and either they will cut down your speed to a crawl when you use up your data, or they will cut you off, or they will send you a big bill.

Again, don’t let large data caps like 100GB fool you, you WILL consume it all, and you will pay them a LOT of money each month.

Mount Baker Cable

I don’t have much experience with this, but from what I know it’s not available everywhere, the speeds are ok, but not always consistent, the reliability is like DSL, and I think there might be data caps as well on this service.

Wireless via Orcas Online or DBIUA

Orcas Online and DBIUA both provide access using small radio’s that run over public radio frequencies.  These radio’s can provide speeds up to 50mbps (or more) both upload and download across long distances (10+ miles in some cases).  These radios do require good line of sight, which means you can’t shoot through a bunch of trees.

The good parts of this option are the price is affordable, installation is fairly quick and easy, and speeds are better than DSL.

The downside is that because these radios use public frequencies, at times there can be interference that causes reliability issues.

Prices for Orcas Online vary depending on how fast you want to go.  DBIUA is a flat fee, and provides whatever speeds it can to you, and the overall speed of the system is shared with everyone (this is a very uncommon model).

This wireless option is a shared system, so that if several people are connecting to the same upstream radio, they all share the available speed.  So not everyone can get 50mbps all at the same time.

Access to this type of connection depends on where you are located.  DBIUA is obviously only on the Doe Bay Area, but Orcas Online has links and relay points all around Orcas and on other islands as well.  You just need to be able to see the correct access point.

Startouch Broadband

Startouch is based in Bellingham and provides commercial microwave connections across the state.  These are licensed FCC links and are expensive to install ($10,000+), but there is no interference issues. They are also capable of very fast speeds. The Orcas public school and library both have these types of connection from Startouch. Notice the large dish on the roof of the library.

The DBIUA also uses one of these links for its upstream connection to the Internet.

Startouch also provides wireless business service at slower speeds and lower costs using radios like Orcas Online and DBIUA.

The requirement to use Startouch is being able to see one of their towers which means Mt. Constitution or towers on the mainland.

OPALCO/Rockisland

Before Rockisland was purchased by OPALCO, they provided similar wireless services that Orcas Online and DBIUA provide.  But after being purchased by OPALCO, they seem to not be offering these services.  The push now is to bring fiber to your home, or at least those that want to pay for it.

Internet over fiber is very fast and reliable.  Speeds are the same both upload and download.  But it’s very expensive to get to you.  Even if you are less than 100′ away from the backbone it’s still going to cost over $1,000 to hookup.  And it takes a LOT of time and effort to get installed because they need to trench all the way to your house.

The other option they are selling is “Fixed Wireless LTE” like the mobile phone providers.  Except with no data caps!  The monthly cost is about the same a fiber, and the speeds are similar to other wireless options.  Installation cost is very affordable ($0?).

This is available now in areas where they have put up their tall poles with cell equipment on them, like at the Eastsound office, and at the Olga substation.  Their plan is to put these poles all over the county to improve communication with their linemen, as well as provide internet to people.  They have also partnered with T-Mobile to allow them access to this equipment for mobile phone service.

Rockisland’s message is that this wireless option is available for areas where fiber is hard to reach or very expensive.  But in my opinion there is no technical reason why everyone should not be able to get this and be forced to pay for fiber.

Summary

There are many different options available today for internet access on Orcas.  In some locations right now you may only have one available to you.

But as OPALCO builds out their LTE Wireless network, and as Orcas Online continues to expand their network, and others learn how to reproduced the DBIUA model we will have even more options in the future.

Automatic Failover

Startouch is working on our main radio link doing some config changes remotely.

This was a good test to see if I had our cisco router setup correctly to fail over to the backup link, when the primary link went down.

It didn’t work.  So obviously I don’t have this setup correctly.  I thought the magic was in the routing area:

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.2.3.4
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 5.6.7.8 20

1.2.3.4 is the primary link, and 5.6.7.8 is the backup, and the “20” after the backup I thought said to use this if the primary went down.

But, this didn’t work.  Looking into why, but for now, just needed to go into the router, do a config terminal, then swap those 2 lines, and put the “20” on the 1.2.3.4 and blank out the 5.6.7.8.